Perfect & Continuous Infinitive (часть 3, для продолжающих). Упражнения

Вы уже изучили основные случаи употребления инфинитива в английском языке, а в этом уроке мы рассмотрим остальные формы инфинитива в активном залоге:

  1. Perfect Infinitive (to have written)
  2. Continuous Infinitive (to be writing)
  3. Perfect Continuous Infinitive (to have been writing)

Perfect Infinitive Active. Теория

  1. Perfect Infinitive употребляется для выражения действия, предшествующего действию, выраженному глаголом. Это форма довольно часто встречается.

ПРИМЕР He is glad to have finished his work. – Он рад, что закончил свою работу.

  1. Perfect Infinitive после модального глагола MUST  выражает предположение о совершенности действия.

ПРИМЕР He must have forgotten about it. — Он, должно быть, забыл об этом.

  1. Perfect Infinitive после модальных глаголов SHOULD, COULD выражает действие, которое могло бы совершиться, но не совершилось.

ПРИМЕР You should have gone there. — Тебе следовало пойти туда (но ты не сходил).

Perfect Infinitive Теория и упражнения

Perfect Infinitive Active. Упражнения

Упражнение 1. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Perfect Infinitive.

  1. The child was sorry to have forgotten to feed the dog.
  2. I am glad to have met you.
  3. I am sorry to have kept you waiting.
  4. He remembered to have seen her at the party.
  5. She was disappointed not to have passed the exam.

* * *

Упражнение 2.Замените выделенные части предложений инфи­нитивными оборотами Indefinite Infinitive и Perfect Infinitive.

ПРИМЕР   He is sorry that he has said it. — He is sorry to have he said it.

  1. It is certain that it will rain if you don’t take your umbrella.
  2. Don’t promise that you will do it, if you are not sure that you can.
  3. He was very proud that he had helped his elder brother.
  4. She was sorry that she had missed the beginning of the concert.
  5. I am glad that I see all my friends here.
  6. She is happy that she has found such a nice place to live in.
  7. I will be disappointed if I can’t join you.
  8. He hopes that he will know everything about it.
  9. I was lucky that I had attended this concert.
  10. They were excited that they had reached the city at last.

* * *

Упражнение 3Переведите предложения с Perfect Infinitive в значении предположения.

  1. You must have left your book at school.
  2. She must have left the town.
  3. The student must have finished writing the essay.
  4. He must have forgotten to warn them.
  5. I must have seen you before. Your face seems familiar to me.

Упражнение 4Переведите предложения с Perfect Infinitive в значении неодобрения.

  1. You should have left a message for her.
  2. She shouldn’t have taken the child to the cinema.
  3. He should have worked harder.
  4. I shouldn’t have eaten too much.
  5. We shouldn’t have spent so much money.

Упражнение 5Перефразируйте предложения, используя Perfect Infinitive в значении предположения.

  • probably — вероятно
  • evidently — очевидно

  1. Probably they have solved the problem.
  2. Probably you left your umbrella in the bus.
  3. Probably Helen forgot to call him.
  4. Evidently mother took my key by mistake.
  5. Evidently they took the wrong turning.
Дополнительно Модальные глаголы в значении предположения СКОРО

* * *

Continuous и  Perfect Continuous Infinitive. Теория

Формы Continuous Infinitive и Perfect Continuous Infinitive встречаются довольно редко, но важно знать следующее.

  1. Continuous Infinitive употребляется для выражения длительного действия, одновременного с действием, выраженным глаголом.

ПРИМЕР The weather seems to be improving. – Кажется, погода улучшается.

  1. Perfect Continuous Infinitive употребляется для выражения длительного действия, совершавшегося в течении отрезка времени, предшествовавшего действию, выраженному глаголом.

ПРИМЕР
He is known to have been working on this problem for many years. — Известно, что он работает над этой проблемой уже много лет.

Perfect Infinitive Теория и упражнения

Continuous и  Perfect Continuous Infinitive. Упражнения

Упражнение 6. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Continuous и Perfect Continuous Infinitive.  

ПРИМЕРЫ

  • He pretended to be reading. – Он притворяется, что читает.
  • He must be reading. – Он, должно быть, читает.
  1. He is glad to be skating on such a nice day.
  2. They were sure to be going in the wrong direction.
  3. The children were glad to have been walking for so long.
  4. Grandfather must be sleeping.
  5. They must be walking in the park now.

Упражнение 7. Перефразируйте предложения, используя Continuous и Perfect Continuous Infinitive в значении предположения.

  1. Probably children are playing in the garden.
  2. It is certain that she is waiting for you at home.
  3. Of course, they are having a good time.
  4. I am sure that she has been working at this hospital for many years.
  5. I hear the children’s voices. Evidently they are reading aloud.

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