List of words on the topic «Ecology. Ecological Problems»

Этот список слов по теме «Экология» поможет  вам повторить лексику к экзамену. Список содержит все слова, которые нужны, чтобы свободно говорить на эту тему, а также словосочетания, которые иллюстрируют употребление слова.  Всего 60 слов, которые разделены по разделам:

  1. General words on the topic «Ecological Problems»
  2. Pollution
  3. Destruction of the environment, nature and its wildlife
  4. Environmental Protection

Однако если времени осталось совсем мало и вы в принципе владеете лексикой, то, возможно, вам помогут 10 фраз для быстрой подготовки к экзамену.

The main sources of pollution: Man and his activity, plants and factories, nuclear power stations and transport.

List of words on the topic «Ecology. Ecological problems»

 

I. General Words

1. environment — окружающая среда

  • a healthy environment
  • to protect the environment

2. pollution — загрязнение

  • Land pollution, air pollution, water pollution
  • Many scientists think about serious changes in the climate because of the pollution of the atmosphere.

3. protection — защита

  • protection of the environment

4. environmental  — связанные с окружающей средой (=ecological)

  • environmental problems
  • environmental protection
  • Environmental pollution is becoming worse.
  • The main environmental problems are

5. to protect the environment — защищать окружающую среду

  • to protect the environment from pollution

6. to pollute / to be polluted by — загрязнять / быть загрязненным чем-то

  • to pollute the environment
  • to pollute the water, air, atmosphere means to make it dirty and dangerous for people and animals to live in or to use
  • The air in the cities is polluted by car fumes (выхлопными газами).

7. An influence = an effect — влияние (воздействие)

  • to have a strong influence (effect) on
  • TV has a strong influence on people.
  • Climate has a very important influence on plants, animals and humans.

8. to influence smth (greatly) — влиять (сильно)

  • What influenced his decision?
  • His speech influenced me greatly.
  • Humans influence Nature.

9. human influence — влияние человека

  • Human influence on nature is negative.

10. to destroy / to be destroyed — разрушить, уничтожить / быть уничтоженным

  • to destroy buildings, to destroy hopes
  • The house was destroyed.
  • Fires often destroy forests.

11. a destruction — разрушение

  • the destruction of environment
  • the destruction of wildlife & countryside beauty
  • destruction of ozone layer
  • destruction of rainforests
  • Pouring oil into the water will cause pollution and the destruction of our seas and rivers.

12. damage — ущерб

13. to damage / to be damaged — нанести ущерб / быть поврежденным

  • to be damaged by fire
  • The house was so badly damaged.

14. fragile — хрупкий

  • fragile health
  • Our fragile planet needs protection
  • Name 3 things that are fragile.

15. to cause / to be caused — вызывать / вызван

  • to cause illness
  • to cause decease
  • to cause death
  • to cause destruction
  • to cause troubles
  • to cause pollution
  • A burning cigarette caused the fire.
  • Smoking causes lung decease.

16. a disaster

  • a terrible disaster
  • nuclear disaster
  • ecological disaster
  • Fire is a disaster.

17. to survive — выжить

  • Do you know that camels can survive for many days without eating?

18. safe — безопасный

  • a safe place to live

19. safety — безопасность

  • be sure of safety

20. global — глобальный

  • global problems

21. crisis [`kraisis] — кризис

  • ecological crisis
  • global crisis

22. to prevent — предотвратить

  • to prevent an ecological disaster

23. to take actions — принимать меры

  • to take actions to prevent an ecological disaster

24. to prohibit / to be prohibited — запретить / запрещено

  • to be strictly prohibited
  • Feeding animals in zoos is strictly prohibited.

* * *

II. Pollution

25. to produce — производить

  • to produce goods
  • Name makes of cars produced in Russia.

26. energy — энергия

  • Energy is the power from electricity, wind, etc. that helps machines work.

27. nuclear — ядерный

  • nuclear energy
  • nuclear power stations
  • nuclear tests
  • nuclear weapons
  • a nuclear waste
  • Nuclear waste endangers people’s lives.
  • People all over the world protest against nuclear tests.
  • Nuclear power stations can go wrong and cause nuclear pollution.

28.  a dump — свалка

  • town dump
  • This town is a real dump.
  • Take all this litter to the town dump.

29. litter — мелкий мусор

  • to drop litter
  • to clear litter away

30. cans of coke/ beer — банки от колы, пива

31. packaging — упаковка

32. packed goods — упакованные товары

33. rubbish / garbage – крупный мусор

  • to throw rubbish

34. throw away — выбрасывать

35. waste — отходы

  • waste paper
  • nuclear waste
  • industrial waste
  • chemical waste
  • radioactive waste
  • A lot of waste from factories and plants goes in to the rivers.
  • The scientists try to solve the problem of radioactive waste.

36. to dump / to be dumped — сбрасывать в большом количестве / быть выброшенным

  • They dumped a lot of rubbish in the river.
  • All the countries protest against dumping acid wastes in the seas and oceans.

37. poison — яд

38. to poison / to be poisoned — отравлять / быть отравленным

  • People can be poisoned by industrial waste.

* * *

III. Destruction of  the Environment, Nature and the Wildlife

39. greenhouse effect — парниковый эффект

  • the problem of greenhouse effect
  • Greenhouse effect is the problem of a rise in temperature in the earth’s atmosphere.

40. source [so:s] — источник

  • source of information
  • What are the main sourses of land pollution?

41. resources [ri`so:siz] — ресурсы

  • natural resources
  • The country is rich in natural resources. They are……

42. to waste — тратить понапрасну

  • not to waste water, electricity

43. a shortage

  • a shortage of water
  • a shortage of natural resources ( gas, oil, clean water)
  • a shortage of  food

44. to run out of – заканчиваться

  • We will run out of oil.

45. extinct — вымерший

  • extinct birds
  • What extinct animals do you know?
  • Dinosaurs are extinct animals.

46. to endanger / to be endangered — подвергать опасности / быть в опасности

  • to endanger animals
  • to endanger people’s lives

47. endangered animals — исчезающие животные

  • Enganged animals are in danger.
  • Nowadays tigers have become endangered animals.

48. to die out — вымирать

  • Endangered animals can easily die out.
  • Why do some animals die out? People kill animals for the sake of their skins and destroy their habitats, cutting down forests and polluting water.

49. a species [`spi:ʃi:z] (мн.ч. species) — вид (виды)

  • plant species
  • insect species
  • a species of flowers, a species of animals, different species of trees
  • The Black Tulip is an unusual species of tulips.

50. a habitat — место обитания

  • a habitat of plants
  • a habitat of animals
  • A habitat is a place where a certain animal usually lives.

51. to include / to be included — включать / быть включенным

  • to include in the Red Book

52. disappearing = (rare) — исчезающие (редкие)

  • disappearing species
  • rare species

* * *

IV. Environmental Protection

53. filter /purifier  — фильтры / очистители

  • to use filters

54. bins — контейнеры

  • to provide special bins to separate waste

55. to fine — штрафовать

  • The government should issue a law to fine plants and factories for all kinds of pollution.

56. to recycle / to be recycled — перерабатывать / перерабатываться

  • to recycle waste

57. recyclable — пригодный к переработке

  • to produce recycable packaging

58. recycling centers — центры переработки

  • There are no recycling centers in our city.

59. to reuse – использовать  вторично

60. to save — экономить

61.  to reduce — уменьшить


Also you can read texts on the topic «The Ecological Problems»

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