Это третий текст из цикла «Schooling & Education» и он посвящен системе образования в Америке. Текст «Education in America» является заключительным, так как предполагается, что вы уже читали тексты про систему образования в России и Великобритании и знаете слова:
compulsory, primary education, secondary education, comprehensive, ability, entrance exams, specialized schools, profound knowledge, academic subjects, higher education, enter a university, take exams, pass exams, fail exams (from the text «Education in Russia»)
stage, grammar school, national exam, General certificate of secondary education, further education, to accept, to graduate from, to provide education, private school, boarding school, public school, assessment (from the text «Education in Britain»)
Education in America
(text about the American Educational System)
- melting pot — плавильный котел
- getting started — положить начало
- successful career — успешная карьера
- main aim — главная цель
- grade — класс, год обучения
- elementary school — начальная школа
- high school — старшая школа
- elective subjects — предметы по выбору
- be necessary for — быть необходимым для
- public school — государственная общеобразовательная школа (! В Великобритании public school — частная школа для аристократии)
- private school — частная школа
- religious school — духовное училище (такие школы есть и в Великобритании)
- extracurricular activity — внешкольные мероприятия
- take into account — учитывать (при поступлении)
- institution — учебное заведение
- community college — колледж, в котором учатся студенты, живущие дома
- additional education — дополнительное образование
- to receive a bachelor’s degree — получить диплом бакалавра
- master’s degree — диплом магистра
- high school graduate— выпускник школы
- Harvard — Гарвард
There is no national curriculum in the USA. Each state has its own system of schools. But there are some common features in the organization of school education in the country.
Compulsory education begins at the age of 6 in most states and continues usually until 16. School consists of 12 grades: 6 years of elementary school and 6 years of high school, but this plan may be different in different states. Children move on to high school in the 7th grade and study there until the 12th grade. There are elective subjects, and every student can choose the ones which he thinks will be necessary for him in his future work or further education.
The state schools are called public schools, besides there are private schools, which are very expensive, and religious schools which are also fee-paying.
Extracurricular activity (such as playing for one of the school’s sports teams) is also very important in the American School system and is taken into account by colleges and universities.]
When young people finish secondary school they go on to community colleges, which provide two years of higher education at minimal cost. A number of young people go to colleges and universities that provide four years of higher education necessary to receive a bachelor’s degree, as well as additional education for a master’s degree.
Generally, the system of higher education includes 4 categories of institutions:
- the community college, which is financed by the local community in different professions
- the technical training institution, at which high school graduates may take courses ranging from 6 months to three-four years, and learn different technical skills, which may include computer programming, accounting (бухгалтерское дело), etc.
- the four-year college, the graduates receive the degree of Bachelor of Arts (BA) or Bachelor of Science (BS).
- the university
Any of these institutions may be either public or private. The public institutions are financed by state. Among the private universities the most famous is Harvard.