Страноведение. Great Britain (texts for beginners, основные факты для начинающих)

Это первая статья из цикла  «Страноведение. Великобритания». Разнообразные задания по теме помогут вам получше узнать историю и культуру великой страны, язык которой вы изучаете. Возможно, вы захотите посетить ее, чтобы своими глазами увидеть удивительные места, о которых прочитаете и поговорить с жителями на их родном языке.  Прочитайте несложный текст (Great Britain, text for beginners) и  вы узнаете основные факты об этой стране.

Great Britain text for beginners

Страноведение. Великобритания. Задания (вводные)

Task 1. Эти имена имеют отношение к Великобритании. Что вы знаете о каждом из них?

the Beatles, Luis Carol, Scotland, Agatha Christie, Cardiff, Conan Doyle, Robinson Crusoe, Wales, Charles Dickens, Mary Poppins, Isaac Newton, London, Robert Stevenson, England, Oxford, Charlotte Bronte, Cambridge, Edinburgh, Rudyard Kipling

If you don’t know what to say, try to divide the names into groups:

  1. writers
  2. characters
  3. music bands
  4. countries
  5. cities & towns
  6. scientists

Task 2. Выполните Quiz 1. What do you know about the UK?


Great Britain. Texts with Tasks

Task 3. Перед тем как читать текст про Великобританию, найдите на карте географические названия ниже:

  1. the British Isles [‘brɪtɪʃ  aɪlz]- Британские острова ( Great Britain & Ireland)
  2. the Irish Sea — Ирландское море
  3. the English Channel — пролив Ла-Манш (другие названия пролив Па-де-Кале)
  4. the Strait of Dover — Дуврский пролив
  5. the North Sea – Северное море
  6. the Atlantic Ocean – Атлантический океан
  7. England — Англия
  8. Scotland — Шотландия
  9. Wales – Уэльс
  10. the UK – Соединенное королевство
  11. Northern Ireland – Северная Ирландия
  12. Dover – город Дувр
the British Isles — историческое название, которое нужно запомнить.
Не путайте произношение слов: isle [aɪl], island [‘aɪlənd] — остров, Ireland [‘aɪələnd] — Ирландия
Перед названиями морей, океанов и рек ставится определенный артикль the.

Great Britain.Text for beginners with map

The British Isles include two main islands: Great Britain and Ireland.

Task 4. Переведите предложения ниже и найдите на карте части Соединенного королевства и их столицы. Запомните их.

  • Столица Англии и соединенного королевства — Лондон.
  • Столица Шотландии — Эдинбург.
  • Столица Уэльса — Кардиф.
  • Столица Северной Ирландии — Белфаст.

The UK and its parts on the map

Task 5. Вспомните слова по теме «Страноведение»: be situated in, be separated by (from), be washed by, include, consist of, capital, island, continent, main, part, point, narrow, the narrowest, near, the nearest.


Task 6. Прочитайте текст про Соединенное королевство.

New Words:

  • an island state – островное государство
  • the white chalk cliffs of Dover – меловые утесы Дувра

Great Britain (text for beginners)

(after the textbook by Afanasjeva, V)

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) is the official name of the state, which is situated on the British Isles. This state is also called Great Britain after the main island with the same name. The UK consists of four countries, which are England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast.

Эту информацию надо выучить выучить!

Geographical position of the UK. Географическое положение Соединенного королевства

The UK is an island state. The two main islands are Great Britain (where England, Scotland and Wales are situated) and Ireland (where Northern Ireland and the independent Irish Republic are situated). The two islands are separated by the Irish Sea. The UK is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in the north and the North Sea in the east.

The UK is separated from the continent by the English Channel and the Strait of Dover. The Strait of Dover is the narrowest part of English Channel. The nearest point to Europe is Dover which is only thirty-two miles from France. Dover is one of the most ancient ports. If you cross the English Channel by ferry you can see the white chalk cliffs of Dover and Dover Castle.

Great Britain. England. The Dover Castle

 Dover Castle – Дуврский замок (фото автора)

Nationalities. Национальности

Everyone who was born in Britain is British. People from England are English. People from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are not English. They are Scottish or the Scotts, Welsh and Irish.


Languages. Языки

Everyone in Britain speaks English. But in some parts of Scotland and Wales people speak different languages as well. The Welsh are especially proud of their language. They like to speak Welsh, to sing songs in Welsh and when you travel you can see road signs in Welsh all over Wales. Everyone in the UK speaks English but they all speak it differently. A Scottish person has to listen carefully if he wants to understand a Londoner or a Welsh person.

The Scottish people speak Gaelic [‘geɪlɪk] (гаэльский, язык шотландских кельтов).

Population. Население

More than 56 million people live in Britain. Many of them live in big industrial cities like London. The biggest cities of England are Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Liverpool (England); Edinburg, Glasgow, (Scotland).


Nature. Природа

Foreigners are often surprised by the fact that much of land in Britain is open country. There are many lonely hills, quiet rivers, deep lakes and just farmlands especially in the south of the country. The open country is named Lowlands but it changes for hills called Highlands in the north of the country.

Читать подробнее «The British Nature»

Climate. Климат

The climate in Great Britain is very mild. The winter temperature is between +3° and +7°. Snow does not cover the ground very long, except on the mountains. The summer temperature is between +15° and +18°.  It often rains.

The English weather is very changeable. So when English people make plans for holidays  they usually begin, “If the weather…”


State Symbol. Государственный символ

The flag of the United Kingdom is known as the Union Jack. It is made up of three crosses: the cross of St. George (the patron saint of England), the cross of St. Andrew (the patron saint of Scotland) and the cross of St. Patrick (the patron saint of Ireland).

Читать подробнее «The History of the British Flag»

Упражнения к тексту «Great Britain»

Упражнение 1. Read the text and complete the following sentences:

  1. … is the official name of the state which is situated on the British Isles.
  2. The capital of Great Britain is …
  3. The capital of Scotland is …
  4. The capital of Northern Ireland is …
  5. The capital of Wales is …
  6. Ireland and Great Britain are separated by …
  7. The UK is separated from the continent by …
  8. The UK is washed by… in the west.
  9. The UK is washed by … in the east.

Упражнение 2. Complete the following sentences making the right choice.

  1. The Union Jack is …
    1. the flag of the UK
    2. the flag of the USA
  1. English is spoken …
    1. all over Britain
    2. only in England
  1. The UK is the official name of the country situated …
    1. on the island which is called Great Britain
    2. on the British Isles
  1. Edinburgh is the capital of …
    1. Wales
    2. Scotland
  1. The independent Irish Republic is situated …
    1. in Northern Ireland
    2. on the smaller of the two biggest islands of the British Isles
  1. Great Britain and Ireland are separated by …
    1. the North Sea
    2. the Irish Sea
  1. The nearest point to Europe is …
    1. the Strait of Dover
    2. Dover
  1. The UK is washed by the Atlantic Ocean in …
    1. the north
    2. the west

Упражнение 3. Fill in articles where necessary.

(1) ________ United Kingdom is situated on (2) ________ British Isles which are separated from (3) ________ continent by (4) _________English Channel and (5) _________Strait of Dover. (6) __________two main islands of (7) _________ British Isles are (8)_________Great Britain and (9) ________Ireland. (10) _______ England is situated in (11)________ south of (12) _______ Great Britain and (13) _______ Scotland in its (14) ________ north. (15)_______ two big islands are separated by (16) _______ Irish Sea.

ОТВЕТЫ (упр. 3)


Упражнение 4. Complete this text about Great Britain and learn it by heart.

Use the words: mild, large, falls, rain, sightseeing, Western,  Atlantic, temperature, pound, population,  Highlands, English, London.

Great Britain is a (1) …. country, a kingdom in (2) …. Europe. It lies on several islands and has a (3) …. of about 57 mln people. Great Britain’s capital is (4)…. and the national currency is a (5) …. . (6) …. is the language that people speak in the country.

The climate in Great Britain is very (7) …. . There are a lot of (8) …. falling out all the year round. The wind brings rain from the (9) …. Ocean. Snow only (10) …. occasionally and doesn’t stay for long except in the (11) …. of Scotland. The usual (12) …. in England and Wales are + 4°C in January and + 16°C in July and August.

A lot of tourists come to Great Britain every year to do some (13) …. in its big and small towns.


Упражнение 5. Match the words in the two columns to say what these places are famous for. Make notes to remember.

Example: London is famous for its places of interest.

The places of interest: the Lake District, Hadrian’s Wall, Stonehenge, Land’s End, Cambridge and Oxford, Heathrow, Greenwich, Liverpool, Stratford-upon-Avon.

Descriptions:

  1. the biggest airport in England
  2. a group of huge stones of pre-historic times
  3. the fact it is the most westerly [‘west(ə)lɪ] point in the country
  4. the fact that it was built by Romans
  5. its 12th century universities
  6. its lakes and beautiful scenery
  7. the fact that it is the home town of Beatles
  8. the fact that it is Shakespeare’s place of birth
  9. Greenwich Observatory, the zero meridian of longitude passes through it.

Упражнение 6. Answer the questions.

  1. What is the official name of Great Britain now?
  2. What parts does the UK consist of and what are their capitals?
  3. What is the national symbol (emblem) of England (Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland)?
  4. What is the British flag called? Why?
  5. What are the names of two main islands of the British Isles?
  6. What separates Great Britain from the continent?
  7. What do we call the narrowest part of the English Channel?
  8. Why is the UK called an island state?
  9. What do we call people who were born in Britain? In Scotland? In Wales? In Ireland?
  10. Is English the only language people speak in the UK?
  11. What is the Union Jack? What does the Union Jack look like and what does it symbolize?
  12. What language is spoken in Scotland? In Wales? In Ireland?
  13. How big is London compared with other cities?
  14. How does the scenery change across the country?
  15. What is the British climate like?
  16. What is the English weather like?
  17. What is Stratford-upon-Avon famous for?
  18. What is Oxford famous for? Cambridge?
  19. What is Liverpool famous for?
  20. What is Lake district famous for?

Упражнение 7. Match the country and its symbol.

Countries of the UK: England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland

Symbols: Daffodil, Rose, Shamrock, Thistle

Предлагаем дальше


ОТВЕТЫ (упр. 3)

1.the; 2.the; 3 the; 4.the ; 5.the; 6 the; 7.the; 8.-; 9.-; 10.-; 11.the; 12.- ; 13.-; 14.-; 15.the; 16.the.

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