Science and Technology. Тексты по теме для подготовки к экзамену

Sceince and technology is what we cannot imagine our life nowadays. Throughout the history inventors’ ideas have changed the way we live, making it easier and more enjoyable. The twenty-first century is no exception as it is noted for the invention of the television, computers, spacecraft, genetic engineering and many others. Read the texts about famous inventors and their inventions and remember their names. Before reading you should make sure that you know the words — Science. Английские слова. Список №1 

Science and Technology. Тексты по теме для подготовки к экзамену

Science and Technology. Texts about Famous Inventions and their Inventors

Before reading the texts match the inventors and inventions:

The inventions: the telephone, the television, the computer, the light bulb, the hydrogen bomb, the mobile phone (6)

The inventors: Charles Babbage, John Braid, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, Martin Cooper, Andrei Sakharov (6)

Содержание:

  1. The Invention of the Telephone
  2. The Invention of the Television
  3. The Invention of the Computer
  4. The Invention of the Mobile Phone
  5. The most famous scientists and their inventions (discoveries) in Britain and America
  6. Russia’s Achievements in Science and Technology

1. The Invention of the Telephone

  • the human organs of articulation — органы слуха
  • the deaf — глухие

The telephone is one of the most important inventions of the 19th century. Its creator was the English scientist Alexander Graham Bell.

Bell wanted to be a teacher and entered Edinburgh University. But he changed his mind and became a student of the Medical Faculty of London University. Under the guidance of an outstanding German scientist who works on physiology of sight and ear, Bell began to study the human organs of articulation.

By and by Bell came to the idea of creating a special apparatus which would help the deaf to pronounce the sounds of speech and learn to speak. Working on such a apparatus, Bell invented microphone (with engineer Thomas Watson) and telephone. At first his invention was not popular with the public, but Bell visited American towns and other countries, read lectures and demonstrated his telephone.

In 1878 he also organized his own company to produce telephones. But Bell wasn’t interested in business itself and used his money on the laboratories for generating new ideas. He was and is greatly respected both in England and America.

* * *

2. The Invention of the Television

  • to broadcast — транслировать (передавать)
  • vision — изображение
  • available — доступный

The television is a mass media that serves to gives people opportunities both for entertainment and for rapid information.

The idea of a machine able to broadcast both sound and vision goes back to 1875. But it wasn’t until 1926 that a Scottish engineer (John Braid) turned the idea into a practical reality. The first pictures were black and white and were not very clear.

Early TV sets cost as much as a small car and few people bought them. In 1936 the original system was improved and the first regular TV programme was broadcast in Britain.

But the real TV revolution began in America after World War Two. Commercial stations began to open in almost every city. But still lots of people didn’t have TV sets as they were too expensive. That all changed in the 60s and 70s when more and more TV sets were sold and the importance of television grew quickly. In 1980 there appeared satellite television. Dozens of new channels are now available to anyone who buys a receiving “dish”.

* * *

3. The Invention of the Computer

  • efficient — эффективный
  • to store — хранить
  • to substitute — заменить

One more important invention of our century is the computer. The first computer was invented by the English scientist Charles Babbage.

Nowadays nearly everything we do in the modern world is helped and controlled by computers. Computers are used so often because they are more efficient than human beings. They have better memories and can store a lot of information.

In fact, computers can do what we can do but faster and better. They can control different machines, foretell tomorrow’s weather, even play chess and compose music. Computers are widely used in various professions. We can find computers everywhere: in a library, in a travel agency, in a hotel, in a shop and in many other places.

To be sure, the technical progress will not stop but the machines will not be able to substitute everything including the human being.

* * *

4.The Invention of the Mobile (cellular) Phone

  • provide — предоставить, обеспечить
  • be awarded for — быть награжденным за
  • significant — значительный
  • demand— спрос
  • cellular — сотовый
  • be launched — выпустить
  • crucial — решающий

Modern mobile phone provides a lot of services, from being able to message anyone to immediate access to the internet. This convenience is one of the reasons why we use mobile phone every day and sometimes cannot imagine our life without it. However, we do not know that the name of the inventor of the first cellular phone, the talented American engineer Martin Cooper.

The first cellular phone was the father of the mobile phone. It was the telephone device that could be used while being mobile i.e. without the standard cord attached to it. The first cellular phone was called DynaTac 8000X by Motorola as it was created in Motorola company.

Martin Cooper, was born in Chicago on the 26th of December, 1928. He graduated from Illinois Institute of Technology in the early ’50s and worked in the electronic industry.  Throughout his career he was awarded multiple patents for his work.

Among different inventions in mobile technology, the invention of a cell phone was the most significant one. Doctor Martin Cooper made it, while he was working for Motorola (1973). At that time the demand for such devices was very high and he was among many other people who were trying to create a similar type of mobile device.

The first cellular phone was named DynaTac 8000X by Motorola. It looked nothing like what we’re used to now — it was 10 inches long and weighed more than 2 pounds.

The fame of inventing first smartphone is attributed to Andy Rubin. He created and developed the very first Android system, which is now used in 80% of the world’s smartphones. Smartphones are noted for their ability to function in similar ways to a computer, and some of them are just as powerful.

The Motorola company invested 100 million dollars in the next 20 years into research and development of the first cell phone. And yes! The first commercial mobile phone was launched in 1983 by Motorola for around $4000 US dollars.

Omitting the process of the mobile phone evolution, let us say a few words about iPhones. These advanced devices have touchscreen technology, a good quality camera, and 3G network capabilities. They were launched into the market in 2007.

Since 1973, mobile phone technology and networks have come a long way and though Martin Cooper was the man that initially invented the cell phone, there are a lot of other inventors that played a crucial role in the cell phone’s creation.

The most famous of them are:

Alexander Graham Bell, the man that invented the first telephone.

Joel Engel, the main rival of Martin Cooper, who worked in the company called Bell Labs. Bell Labs and Motorola companies were in serious competition to manufacture mobile devices. Motorola won the tech war and the first mobile phone was named as DynaTac 8000X by Motorola.

* * *

5. The most famous scientists and their inventions (discoveries) in Britain and America

Isaak Newton (an English scientist) who lived in the 17th century is the founder of modern mathematics, physics and spectography. Newton discovered the law of motion and the universal law of gravitation.

The eighteenth century is noted for the Industrial Revolution in Britain and many inventions, most prominent of them is probably considered to be the invention of steam engine.

The nineteenth century is noted for the invention of electricity and the telephone.

1. Michel Faraday (an English scientist) who lived in the 19th century made a name for himself in the history of electricity. Faraday made the machine which was the father of all the great machines that make electricity today. Also Faraday was the creator of the electric motor, which changed the face of the earth.
2. Thomas Edison (an American inventor) who lived in the period between 1847-1931 became world- famous for the invention of light bulb and the way of sending electricity to distant places. He is also famous for early microphone, record player and equipment for the cinema, telegraph and telephone.

6. Russia’s Achievements in Science and Technology

The most prominent Russian scientists (engineers) and their inventions are:
1. Mikhail Lomonosov who invented the telescope which helped him to study Venus and made a lot of achievements in astronomy and mineralogy;
2. Dmitry Mendeleev who created the periodic table of elements;
3. Ivan Pavlov who studied conditioned reflexes (условные рефлексы) in animals;
4. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky who created the theory of space flight;
5. Sergei Korolyov who designed the intercontinental missile, Sputnik satellite, and Vostok spacecraft;
6. Igor Kurchatov who made a lot of inventions in nuclear physics;
7. Andrei Sakharov who invented the hydrogen bomb (водородная бомба)

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