Reason and Effect Exercises (level Advanced)

Прочитайте три коротких текста на английском языке, которые относятся к теме «The geographical position of a country» и догадайтесь о какой стране идет речь. Перескажите эти тексты подробно. Ниже вы найдете упражнения «Reason and Effect Exercises», которые помогут вам потренироваться в использовании подчинительных союзов в английском языке. Эти важные упражнения даны в контексте темы «Страны и национальности», и помогут вам научиться выражать свои мысли связно и логично. Это ключ к успеху на любом экзамене! Удачи!

Reason and Effect Exercises

(level ADVANCED, from the textbook English 10-11 by Kuzovlev V. P., Lapa N.P. )

Example Text. Why is Australia so different from other countries?

Millions of years ago, Australia was a part of a huge continent called Gondwanaland. But then Gondwanaland slowly moved and formed several different areas of land. So, Australia became cut off from the rest of the world. That’s why the island’s wildlife is so unique today. Probably, due to its geographical position, Australia was the last continent inhabited by the white man.

Read the example text about Australia and answer the question. Translate the text, paying attention to the words in bold. Remember more conjunctions.


The geographical position of a country can explain a lot of things. Read the short texts about different countries and do reason and effect exercises.

Text A

Запомните, что эти слова читаются не по правилам!
drought [ˈdraʊt] — засуха
flood [flʌd] – наводнение

Read the text. Guess what country it is.

It is the world’s smallest island and its smallest continent. The continent is south to the Equator. Much of the land is a useless desert. Great deserts cover nearly 2,000 000 square kilometers. Most of the continent is sunny most of the year. Its population is very small (only 0,3 % of the world’s population) for such a huge country. Many people live far away from towns in the outback. Severe droughts, floods and cyclones happen very often on the continent. The people suffer from limited fresh water.


Text B

Read the text. Guess what country it is.

It is an island state. It covers a territory of two large islands and several smaller ones. Its coast is over 6,000 miles long. It may be a small island by Russian standards, but geographically it is varied. The south and the east of the island consist of flat plains or hills. Mountainous areas are found only in the north and west. In this county, you are never very far from the coast and there are lots of seaside resorts. It has a mild climate. It is never very cold or very hot. There is steady rainfall throughout most of the year. The main passenger ports and airports are in the Southeast. It is a rich country, one of the richest in the world.


Text C

Read the text. Guess what country it is.

It is the fourth largest nation in the world. It covers 4,500 kilometers from one ocean on the east to another one on the west. Three-quarters (3/4) of the country is washed by ocean. People live within four time zones. It is а land of physical contrasts. Practically every climate in the world is represented there. The southern parts of the country have warm temperatures year round, but the northern parts have very cold winters. The land varies from heavy forests lo large deserts, from high mountains to deep canyons. If you travel across the country, you would go over mountain ranges, cross hundreds of rivers and spend days on the vast, flat prairie lands You would drive past hundreds of lakes, woods and forests. It has most of what every country would like to have — a variety of natural resources, all sorts of products and industries of every kind.


Reason and Effect.  Упражнения

Упражнение 1. Finish the sentences. Find the explanations in the description of the country in text A.

EXAMPLE. Because Australia was cut off from the rest of the world, it was the last continent to be discovered.  — Так как Австралия была отрезана от остального мира, этот был последний открытый континент.

  1. The seasons are the other way round in Australia because….
  2. Thanks to ….. Australia is sometimes called the Land Down Under.
  3. Because…. people have to send a radio message to the flying doctor service if they become ill.
  4. Because….. the few rivers play an especially important role in people’s lives.
  5. ……. That’s why Australians suffer one of the world’s highest rates of skin cancer from too much sun exposure.
  6. …….So, life is not easy in Australia.

Упражнение 2. Continue the sentences, using the conjunction in brackets and the information about the country in text B.

Because the UK is an island state, its geographical position also influences the life of the country and its people. Find the reasons or the effect of the following facts in the description of the UK (Text B).

  1. People go for their holidays or just on a day trip to the seaside. (так как)
  2. Fishing has always been an important industry. (поэтому)
  3. When you travel to England by sea or air, it is very likely that you’ll arrive in the Southeast. (таким образом)
  4. Great Britain has got more than 300 ports. (таким образом)
  5. Fish and seafood are very popular in Britain. (благодаря тому, что)

Упражнение 3. Write how the geographical position of the country explains the following facts about people’s lives. Find the reasons in text C. 

  1. When it is 9 am in Los Angeles, it’s already midday in New York.
  2. Millions of Americans participate in water sports, such as swimming, surfing, fishing, sailing and water skiing.
  3. Low-cost fruits and vegetables are available any time of the year.
  4. A fast railroad train, traveling 96 kilometers an hour, takes more than 45 hours to cross the country.
  5. Americans who prefer various landscapes can easily spend interesting vacations within the country.

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