Moscow and St. Petersburg are the main Russian cities. Moscow is the capital of Russia. St. Petersburg used to be the capital of Russia under Peter the Great. The towns of Golden Ring such as Suzdal, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Pereslavl Zalessky, Rostov, Sergiev Posad and others are also well-known all over the world. Below you will find the texts with some information which may help you to prepare for an English Exam.
Moscow stands on the Moskva river. It was founded in the year of 1147 by Uriy Dolgoruky. It began to rise in the 14th century. Under Ivan the Great it became the principal city of Russia. Though Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg in 1712, Moscow remained the heart of Russia. That’s why it became the main target of Napoleon’s attack. Three quarters of the city was destroyed by fire during Napoleon’s occupation but it was completely restored later.
Now Moscow is one of the largest city in the world. Its total area is about 2561 square kilometers (2016). By the way, the ancient Moscow occupied the territory of the present-day Kremlin.
Nowadays Moscow is the largest city of Russia. It is its political, administrative, economic, industrial, educational and cultural centre. Moscow is the seat of the Russian Parliament (the Duma).
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Saint Petersburg. Text
St. Petersburg is situated on the Neva River. The city lies on the islands. Canals and natural channels make St. Petersburg a city of waterways and bridges.
Saint Petersburg was founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and was the capital of the Russian Empire for two centuries.It is one of the most beautiful cities of Europe. Since its foundation it has played an important role in Russian history.
St. Petersburg is known as a city of culture. There are a lot of theatres, museums and historical buildings there. The most famous museums are the Hermitage and the Russian State Museum.
Besides, it is an industrial city and the largest seaport.
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The Towns of Golden Ring. Text
There are a lot of interesting towns and cities in Russia which are worth visiting. If you want to get acquainted with Russian culture you should visit old Russian towns. They are especially attractive by their cathedrals, churches and monasteries. It is Suzdal, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma and others, known as towns of “Golden ring”. You can see a photo of Suzdal on the right.
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Questions on the topic «Moscow, St. Petercburg and the Towns of Golden Ring»
- What is the centre of the city?
- What is the ceremonial centre of Moscow?
- What is the residence of the Russian President?
- What monuments would you recommend your foreign guests to see?
- What Moscow theatres and art galleries are world –known?
- What places of interest are most popular in St. Petersburg?
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Answers on the topic «Moscow, St. Petercburg and the Towns of Golden Ring»
- The centre of Moscow is the Kremlin. It is the historical heart of Moscow. Its redbrick walls and towers were erected at the end of the 15th century. Ivan the Great Bell Tower rises in the centre of the Kremlin. On the stone pedestal at the foot of the Bell Tower stands the Tsar-bell, the largest bell in the world. There also three magnificent cathedrals there, which always attracts the tourists’ attention.
- Red Square is the the ceremonial centre of the city. It means that all the ceremonies are held in Red Square.
- The Kremlin is now the residence of the Russian President.
- First of all, it is Red Square. It has monuments connected with the history of Russia. In Red Square there is a monument to Minin and Pozharsky erected in 1818 to commemorate the victory over the Polish invaders in 1612. The route along Tverskaya Street will lead to some other monuments: the first one is the statue of Yury Dolgoryky, the founder of Moscow, the second one in Pushkin Square is the monument to Alexander Pushkin, the greatest Russian poet. In Mayakovskaya Square there is a monument to Vladimir Mayakovsky, the Russian poet of the 20th century.
- These are the Bolshoi Theatre, the Mali Theatre and the Moscow Art Theatre. Among the museums it is the State Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, and the State Tretyakov Gallery.
- There a lot of places of interest in St. Petersburg, among them are the Summer Palace, the Winter Palace, the Kazan cathedral, St. Isaac’s cathedrals, the Peter and Paul Fortress, the Admiralty but most impressive of all is the Hermitage. It was founded in 1764 by Catherine the Great as a court museum.
The Hermitage has a rich collection of western European paintings since the Middle Ages, including many masterpieces by Renaissance painters. It has also extensive holdings of Russian and Oriental art.